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HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.


edinburgh :
printed by ballantyne and company,
paul’s work.


THE

HISTORY OF SCOTLAND

FROM THE

ACCESSION OF ALEXANDER III, T0 THE UNION.

PATRICK FRASER TYTLER,

F.R,S.E. & F.A.S.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.
VOL. II.

EDINBURGH :
WILLIAM P. NIMMO,

1864.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

CHAP. I.

ROBERT THE THIRD.

1390-1424.                      PAGE

Coronation of John, earl of Carrick . 1
He assumes the name of Robert the
Third
          ..... 1

Character of the new king ... 1
State of the country .... 2

Earls of Fife and Buchan, their great

power......2

Anecdote illustrative of the times . 2
Indolence of the king—intrusts the
Earl of Fife with the management of
the government .... 3
Mutual situation of Scotland and Eng­
land .......3

Truce of eight years .... 3
Atrocious conduct of the Earl of Buchan 3
His natural son, Duncan Stewart, ra­
vages Forfarshire .... 3
Combat at Gasklune—the kctherans

defeat the Lowland barons         . . 3

Disorganised state of the country          . 4

Combat on the North Inch of Perth
between the clan Kay and the clan

Quhete......4

Its results......5

Government of the northern parts of
the kingdom committed to the king’s

eldest son, David, earl of Carrick . 5
State of the two countries ... 5
Prevalence of chivalry and knight-er­
rantry
          ......5

Anecdotes connected with this . . 5
Parliament at Perth, April 28, 1398 . 6
David, earl of Carrick, created Duke of

Rothesay......6

His character.....7

Bands entered into between the king

and his nobles.....7

Observations on the state of the coun­
try .......8

Albany resigns the office of governor . 8
Parliament held at Perth, Jan. 27, 1398 8
Duke of Rothesay made king’s lieuteu-
ant, and a council appointed to ad-

vise him......8

Further proceedings of the parliament 9
Accession of Henry the Fourth, and
reported murder of King Richard . 10

PAGE

Revolution in England, and deposition

of Richard the Second                                10

Reports arise that Richard is still alive      11
A real or pretended Richard appears

in Scotland.....      11

Situation of that country ...      11
Contentions between the Earls of March
and Douglas regarding the marriage
of the Duke of Rothesay ...
      11
Rothesay is married to Elizabeth Dou­
glas .......
      12

The Earl of March enters into a cor­
respondence with England . .
      12
Flies to the English court ...
      12
Borderers recommence their ravages .
      12
March, along with Hotspur, invades

Scotland......      13

Expedition of Henry the Fourth into

Scotland......      13

Henry’s moderation ....      13
Meeting of the Scottish parliament,

February 21, 1401 ....      14
Its proceedings .... 15-19
Wild and reckless character of the Duke

of Rothesay.....      20

Contrast between his character and that

of his uncle Albany . . . .      20
Death of the queen and the Earl of

Douglas......      20

Intrigues of Sir John de Ramorgny .      20

Character of this intimate of the prince      20
Albany and Ramorgny form a plot for

the destruction of the prince . .      21
He is murdered by their contrivance .
      22
Conduct of the Scottish parliament .
      22
Albany resumes his situation as gover­
nor .......
      23

Conflict at Nesbit Moor—Scots de­
feated .......
      23

Scots invade England . . . .23

Battle of Homildon Hill         ...      24

Scots entirely defeated           ,                       25

Causes of this.....      26

Events which followed the defeat. .      26
Cruelty of Hotspur . . . .26

Conspiracy of the Percies                       ,      27

Its connexion with Scotland         . .      27

Battle of Shrewsbury ....      28

Able conduct of the Earl of March .      28

Death of Hotspur.....      28

The Duke of Albany retreats . .      29

Murder of Sir Malcolm Drummond .      29


vi                                             CONTENTS.

PAGE

Alexander Stewart seizes Kildrummie,

and marries the Countess of Mar . 29
Extraordinary proceedings at the castle

of Kildrummie.....29

State of Scotland.....30

The heir of the throne is committed to
the charge of the Bishop of St An­
drews .......30

Effects of the captivity of the nobles on

the state of the country ... 30
Reports that Richard the Second is

kept in Scotland .... 31
Conspiracy of the Countess of Oxford . 31
Conspiracy of Scrope and Northumber­
land .......31

Scrope and Mowbray seized and be­
headed ......32

Percy and Lord Bardolph fly into Scot­
land . . . . . . .32
Albany’s administration becomes un­
popular­ with some of the nobles
         . 32
They determine to send the heir of the

throne to France .... 33
The prince on his passage is treacher­
ously captured by the English, and
confined in the Tower ... 33
Albany’s satisfaction at this event . 34
Skirmish at Lang-Hermandston, and

death of Sir David Fleming . . 34
Death of Robert the Third ... 34
Character of this monarch ... 35
Meeting of the parliament at Perth . 35
Declaration that James the First is
king, and nomination of the Duke of
Albany as regent .... 35
Political condition of the country in its

relations with France and England . 35
Piracies of the English cruisers . . 36
Scots retaliate under Logan, but are de­
feated
         ......36

Stewart, earl of Mar, becomes a naval

adventurer......36

The Earls of Douglas and March return

to Scotland.....37

Doctrines of Wickliff appear in Scotland 37
History and fate of John Resby : he is

burnt for heresy.....37

Consequences of this persecution . . 38
Expiration of the truce .... 38
Teviotdale Borderers recommence hos­
tilities .......38

Henry the Fourth complains of the
Earl of Douglas neglecting to return

to his captivity.....38

Douglas is finally ransomed ... 38
Fast castle taken, and Roxburgh burnt

by the Scots.....39

Sir Robert Umfraville, admiral of Eng­
land, seizes fourteen Scottish ships,
and ravages the country ... 39
Rebellion of the Lord of the Isles . . 39
Causes of his discontent ... 39
Assembles his army at Inverness, and

ravages Moray.....40

The Earl of Mar advances against him . 40
Great battle at Harlaw . . .40
Particulars of the battle ... 41
Severe loss of the Lowlanders . . 41
Lord of the Isles retires ... 41
Statute in favour of the heirs of those
slain at Harlaw.....42

PAGE

Albany’s northern expedition . . 42
His negotiations for the return of his

son from captivity . .                      42

Death of Henry the Fourth ... 43
Policy of England to maintain pacific

relations with Scotland ... 43
Foundation of the University of St An­
drews .......43

Policy of Henry the Fifth with regard

to Scotland.....              44

Albany’s profligate administration . 44
He procures the return of his son Mur­
doch, and succeeds in detaining James
the First in captivity . . . .45
Resolves to assist France, and to invade

England......45

Parallel between the policy of Edward
the Third and Henry the Fifth as to

Scotland......46

Albany sacrifices the national happiness

to his own ambition .... 46
His expedition into England, called the

“Foul Raid” .                . . .46

Exploits of Sir Robert Umfraville . . 47
Embassy of the Duke of Vendome to

Scotland......47

Seven thousand Scots sent to France
under the Earls of Buchán and Wig­
town . . . .
                         . 47
Albany the governor dies at Stirling . 47
His son Murdoch succeeds to his power,

and assumes the office of governor . 47
His weak administration ... 47
Henry the Fifth carries James the First

with him to France .... 48
James refuses to command the Scots
auxiliaries to cease fighting against

the English.....48

Intrigues of James the First for his re­
turn, and his communications with

Scotland......48

Death of Henry the Fifth ... 48
Regency of Bedford and Gloucester . 48
Negotiations for the return of James

the First......48

Marriage of James the First to the

daughter of the Earl of Somerset . 49
Seven years’ truce
          .... 49

James returns to his dominions . . 49

CHAP. II.

JAMES THE FIRST.

1424-1436.

Character of James the First . .      50

Advantages of his education in England      50

His coronation at Scone ...      51

His caution in his first proceedings .      51

Assembles his parliament : . .      51
Lords of the Articles . . .51

Proceedings of the parliament . .      52
Proclamation against private wars and

feuds.......      52

Against riding with too numerous an

attendance......      52

Appointment of officers or ministers of

justice......      52

Laws against sturdy mendicants . .      52


CONTENTS.                                             vii

PAGE

Statutes regarding the “Great Cus­
toms,” and the dilapidations of the

crown lands.....53

Tax upon the whole lands of the king­
dom .......53

Mode ot its collection .... 53
Taxation of ecclesiastical lands , . 54
State of the fisheries
                                      54

Mines of gold and silver ... 55
Impolitic restrictions upon commerce . 55
Enactment against the purchase of pen­
sions and ecclesiastical benefices . 50

Against rookeries.....56

Statute for the encouragement of arch­
ery .......56

Reflections upon James’s first parlia-

ment.......56

His measures for the destruction of the

house of Albany          .... 56

Difficulty of tracing his project . . 57
Mode in which he proceeds against Mur­
doch and the principal nobles . . 57
Parliament summoned to meet at Perth,

March 12, 1424.....58

James imprisons Duke Murdoch, along
with twenty-six of the principal no­
bility.......58

Possesses himself of the strongest castles

in the country.....59

Trial, condemnation, and execution of
the Duke of Albany, his sons Walter
and Alexander, and the Earl of Len­
nox ......59

Their fate excites pity .... 60
James’s unnecessary cruelty ... 60
Forfeiture of the estates of Albany and

Lennox......60

The imprisoned nobles are liberated .. 61
Deliberations of the parliament proceed 61
Symptoms of the decay of the forest

timber......61

Regulations concerning commerce . 61
Administration of justice . . . 61
Striking statute as to the dispensing

justice “ to the poor "... 61
State of the Highlands .... 62
Statutes against the growth of heresy . 62
Reflections upon this subject
         . . 62

Reflections upon the destruction of the

house of Albany.....63

The queen is delivered of a daughter . 63
Projected marriage between the Dau­
phin of France and the infant prin­
cess .......63

State of France . . . . .63
Embassy of the Archbishop of Rheims

and the Lord Aubigny to Scotland . 64
Embassy from the court of Scotland to

France......64

Embassy from the States of Flanders to

Scotland......64

James procures ample privileges for the
Scottish merchants who trade to Flan­
ders .......64

The king and nobles of Scotland engage

in commercial adventure . . .65
Tax of twelve pennies upon every pound 65
Rude estimate of the annual income of

the people of Scotland                                65

Meeting of the parliament at Perth,
March 11. 1425.....65

PAGE

Picture of the condition of the country,

conveyed by its regulations . . 66
Institution of the “ Session"
         . . 66

Register for all charters and infeft-

ments......66

Committee appointed to examine the

books of the law.....66

Directions for the transcription and pro­
mulgation of the acts of the legisla­
ture .......67

Defence of the country .... 67
Commerce of the country ... 67
Singular statute as to "hostillaris,” or

innkeepers......68

Regulations of weights and measures . 63
James concludes a treaty with Den­
mark .......6S

He determines in person to bring his
northern dominions under legitimate

rule.......69

Summons his parliament to meet at In­
verness ......69

Condition of the Highlands ... 69
James repairs in person to Inverness . 69
His seizure of the northern chiefs, and

instant execution of some of them . 70
James’s clemency to the Lord of the

Isles.......70

Rebellion of this chief .... 70
James’s active measures against him . 71
Alexanders penance .... 71
His imprisonment in Tantallon castle . 71
The Countess of Ross, his mother, con­
fined in the monastery of Inchcolm . 71
Anecdotes illustrative of the disordered

state of the Highlands . . .71.
The king again assembles his parlia­
ment .......72

Provisions against the barons sending

procurators to attend in their place . 72
Indications of James’s government be­
coming unpopular .... 73
Statutes regarding the prices of work,

and the encouragement of agriculture 73
Rebuilding of the castles beyond the

“Mounth”......73

Against carrying the gold out of the

country......73

Regarding judges and the administra­
tion of justice.....74

Important change as to the attendance

of the smaller barons in parliament . 74
Principle of representation introduced . 74
Speaker of the parliament ... 74
Reflections on this change, and the

causes of its introduction ... 75
Statutes regarding the destruction of
wolves, the fisheries, foreign com­
merce, lepers, and against simony,
or “barratrie”
            .... 75

Prices of labour.....76

This meeting of the three Estates deno­
minated a general council
          . . 76
Difficult to understand the distinction
between a parliament and a general

council......76

Embassy of the Archbishop of Rheims

to Scotland......76

Conditions of the marriage between the
Princess Margaret and the Dauphin
finally agreed on .... 76


viii                                             CONTENTS.

PAGE

Cardinal Beaufort requests a meeting

With James, which is declined . . 77
Benevolent law as to the labourers of the

soil.......77

Sumptuary laws as to dress ... 77
Laws as to the arming of the lieges . 77
Arms of gentlemen .... 77
Of yeomen and burgesses ... 78

State of the navy.....78

Tax of providing vessels laid on barons
possessing lands within six miles of

the sea......78

The queen is delivered of twin sons . 78
Truce between the kingdoms renewed

for five years.....79

State of the Highlands .... 79

Rebellion of Donald Balloch ... 79
He defeats the Earl of Mar at lnver-

lochy                            . . . . 79

Desperate combat between Angus Dow
Mackay and Angus Murray, at Strath-
naver . .
                .... 79

The king assembles an army, and un­
dertakes an expedition into the High­
lands .......80

Three hundred robbers hanged . . 80
Donald Balloch betrayed, and his head

sent to James.....80

Pestilence breaks out .... 80
Its symptoms—and effects on the popu­
lar mind......80

Total eclipse of the sun, called the

“Black Hour”.....81

Advantageous offers of the English go­
vernment for the establishment of

peace            ......81

The Estates of the realm meet in a

general council.....$1

The treaty, to which the temporal barons
had consented, unfortunatelyis broken
off by disputes amongst the clergy . 81
Trial and condemnation of Paul Crawar

for heresy......81

His doctrines.....82

Conduct of the king .... 82
James pursues his plan for weakening

the aristocracy             .... 83

His designs against the Earl of Dunbar -83
He determines to resume the immense

estates of March         .... 83

Parliament assembled at Perth, January

10, 1434......84

The cause between the king and the

Earl of March solemnly pleaded . 84
March is deprived of his estates, created
Earl of Buchan, and retires in resent­
ment to England
         .... 84
Before separating, James requires the
barons to give their bonds of adher­
ence and fidelity to the queen . . 85
The king acquires the large estates of
Alexander, earl of Mar, on the death

of this baron.....85

Sir Robert Ogle invades the Scottish

marches......85

He is defeated at Piperden by the Earl
of Angus ...... 85

The Princess Margaret sent to France
with a splendid suite .... 85

The English attempt to interrupt her,
but are unsuccessful .... 86

PAGE

The king deeply resents this          . . 86

The marriage is celebrated at Tours . 86
King James renews the war, and lays

siege to Roxburgh .... 86
He abruptly dismisses his forces . . 86
Assembles a general council at Edin­
burgh .......87

Its provisions.....87

Conspiracy formed against the king by
Sir Robert Graham and the Earl of

Athole......87

Character of Graham . . . .88
Probable causes of the conspiracy
         . 88

The nobles readily enter into Graham’s

designs......88

Their object merely to abridge the royal

prerogative......88

They select Graham to present their re­
monstrances to the king ... 88
He exceeds his commission, and is im­
prisoned ......88

He is afterwards banished, and his es­
tates confiscated . . . .89
Retires to the Highlands, and sends to

James a letter of defiance ... 88
James fixes a price upon his head . 89
Graham communicates with the discon­
tented nobles.....89

Induces the Earl of Athole and Sir Ro­
bert Stewart to conspire against the

king.......89

James determines to keep his Christ­
mas at Perth.....89

Facilities which this affords to the con­
spirators ......89

Stopped on his journey by a Highland

woman......89

Neglects her warning .... 90
Conspirators determine to murder the

king on the night of 20th February . 90
Sir Robert Stewart, the chamberlain,
removes the bolts of the king’s bed-
chamber ......90

James unusually cheerful ... 90
Heroic conduct of Catherine Douglas . 91

The murder......91

James makes a desperate resistance . 92
He is overpowered and slain
         . . 92

The murderers escape to the Highlands,

but are soon taken . . . .92
They are tortured and executed . . 92
Audacious defence of Sir Robert Gra­
ham .......93

Character of James the First         . . 93

Prominent features in his reign . . 93
Causes which produced his inexorable

firmness and occasional cruelty . . 9i
His conduct towards the house of Al­
bany .......94

His encouragement of his clergy . . 95
His personal accomplishments, and ex­
cellence in all knightly exercises . 95
His children......95

HISTORICAL REMARKS ON THE DEATH OF
RICHARD THE SECOND.

Obscurity which hangs over the ac­
counts of Richard’s death ... 96


CONTENTS.                                              ix

PAGE

Reports of his having escaped to Scot-
land .......96

Statement of the author’s views on this

point......              96

Proofs of his escape to Scotland . . 96
Evidence of Bower
          .... 96

Evidence of Winton .... 98
Opinion as to Winton’s testimony
         . 99

His caution accounted for                             99

Corroborations of his evidence as to

Swinburn and Waterton . . . 100
Proofs from a MS. in Advocates’ Lib­
rary “.......100

Conclusions from the above evidence . 100
Passages from the Chamberlain Ac­
counts
         ......101

Their unquestionable authenticity . 101
Inferences to be deduced from them . 101
Proofs from contemporary English

writers......101

From Walsingham         . . . .102

From Otterburn.....102

From a contemporary French MS.         . 102

Chronicle of Kenilworth . . . 102
Of Peter de Ickham . . . .102
Assertions of the king’s escape by con­
temporary writers .... 103
Conspiracy of the Earls of Kent, Surrey,

and Salisbury.....103

Passage as to Maudelain personating the

king.......103

Observations on this .... 103
Richard’s reported death at Pontefract 105
Exposition of the body, and funeral ser­
vice at St Paul’s.....105

Passage descriptive of the ceremony,

from a contemporary French MS. . 105
Observations upon this .... 105
Assertions in a contemporary French
MS. that it was not the body of the
king, but of Maudelain the priest . 106
Arguments to shew that it was not the
body of the king which was exposed . 106

Burial at Langley.....107

Froissart’s account of Richard’s deposi­
tion extremely inaccurate . . . 107
Reports of Richard’s escape, which

arose soon after this exposition . . 107
Frequent conspiracies against Henry,
always accompanied with the asser­
tion that Richard is alive . . . 107
Eight Franciscan friars hanged in Lon­
don for asserting this
          . . . 107
Prior of Launde and Sir Roger de Claren­
don executed for the same offence . 107
Proofs of this from Henry’s proclama­
tions in the Fœdera Angliæ . . 108

Reports in 1402.....108

Rebellion of the Percies in 1403 . . 108
Evidence in their letter of defiance in
1403, contradicted by their manifesto

in 1405......109

Conspiracy of Serle and the Countess of

Oxford in 1404.....109

Opinion as to Serle having procured

Warde to personate the king . . 110
Henry’s assertion not to be credited—
contradicted by the silence of Wal­
singham and Otterburn . . . 110
Proofs from the conduct of Henry after
this conspiracy.....110

PAGE

King Richard believed to be alive by
the French......110

Epistle by Creton, addressed to Richard
in 1405......111

Conspiracy of Scrope and Northumber­
land in 1405 .....111

Proofs of this conspiracy . . . 111

Letter of Northumberland to the Duke
of Orleans......112

State of parties in Scotland at this time 112

Prince James taken prisoner by the
English......113

Consequences of Henry becoming pos­
sessed of James the First, at the same
time that Albany gets possession of
Richard......113

Conspiracy by Northumberland and Lord
Bardolf in 1407.....113

Suppression of this conspiracy . . 114

Conspiracy of the Earl of Cambridge and
Lord Scroop, in 1415 .... 114

Proofs arising out of this conspiracy that
Richard is alive.....114

Evident contradiction and falsehood of
the account given in the Parliament­
ary Rolls......115

Explanation of the real object of the
conspirators.....116

Conspiracy of 1417         .... 116

Alleged plot cf the Duke of Orleans to
bring in the “ Mamuet " of Scotland . 116

Evidence of Lord Cobham that Richard
is alive in 1417.....117

Observations on this evidence . . 117

Conclusion......118

CHAP. III.

JAMES THE SECOND.
1436-1460.

Relative situation of the nobility and
the crown, after the assassination of
James the First.....119

Retreat of the queen-mother to Edin­
burgh castle.....120

Coronation of James the Second . . 121

A truce concluded with England . . 122

The young king secretly conveyed from
Edinburgh castle to Stirling . . 123

Siege of Edinburgh castle by Sir Alex-
ender Livingston .... 124

Coalition between Livingston and Crich-
ton......125

Stewart of Darnley slain by Boyd of Kil-
marnock......126

Marriage of the queen-mother with Sir
James Stewart.....126

Imprisonment of her husband . . 126

A convention of the nobility at Stirling
disposes of the person of the king . 127

The king carried off, by Crichton. to
Edinburgh castle .... 128

Livingston and Crichton again recon­
ciled .......128

Distress of the people occasioned by the
feuds of the nobles .... 128

Turbulent conduct of William, sixth
Earl of Douglas.....129


x                                               CONTENTS.

PAGE

A parliament held at Stirling on Aug. 2,

1440.......129

Its proceedings ..... 130
Plots of the Earl of Douglas and his

brother David against the crown . 131
Their execution in Edinburgh castle . 132
Friendly relations between Scotland and

England......133

Marriage of the king’s sister to Francis

of Bretagne.....134

Relations of Scotland with Rome . . 134
Exorbitant power of William, eighth

earl of Douglas.....134

His two great schemes—to marry the
Fair Maid of Galloway, and to be­
come the governor of the kingdom . 135
Douglas forms a coalition with Living­
ston .......136

Marries the Fair Maid of Galloway . 137
Kennedy, bishop of St Andrews, made

chancellor           .....138

The union of the Livingstons and the
Douglases productive of a multitude

of grievances.....138

League between Douglas and Crawford 138
They ravage the lands of Bishop Ken­
nedy .......139

Douglas lays siege to Edinburgh castle 139
Death of the queen-mother . . . 139
Her daughters sent to France . . 140
Feud between the Crawfords and Ogil-

vies.......141

The Earl of Crawford killed in battle . 141
Consequences of his death . . . 142
League between the new Earl and the

Lord of the Isles . . . .142
Sagacious and determined policy of the

young king towards the nobles . . 142
Renewed league with Franca . . 142
Commencement of hostilities by the

Borderers with England . . . 143
The English defeated at Sark . . 143
Arrival of Mary of Gueldres . . . 144
Revelry and tournaments on the occa­
sion .......145

Marriage of the king and Mary . . 145
Vigorous proceedings of the king against

the turbulent nobility .... 145
Truce concluded with England . . 146
Confirmation of the treaty with France

and the league with Britanny . . 146
Parliament summoned to meet at Edin­
burgh .......146

The king takes vengeance on the house

of Livingston.....146

Important enactments as to general
peace throughout the realm, and re­
garding rebellion against the king . 147
Laws regarding security to tenants un­
der leases, for the prevention of law­
less invasions of property, and for the
putting away of “masterful beggars”

and vagrants.....148

Committee appointed on the acts of par­
liament of the previous reign . . 149
Laws regarding the hoarding of victual,

and the punishment of treason . . 149
Revival of a former act of parliament as
to the importation of bullion and the
coining of false money . . . 150
Privileges conferred on the bishops . 150

PAGE

Embassy to England .... 150
The Earl of Douglas visits England,

France, and Rome .... 151
His determination to maintain his power 151
The king conducts an expedition against

Douglas’s retainers .... 151
Secret league between Douglas and the

Earls of Ross and Crawford , . 152
Douglas joins the Yorkists of England

in a conspiracy against his sovereign 152
He is deprived of his office of lieu­
tenant-general ....., 152

Change in English policy . . . 153
Audacious conduct of Douglas and his

followers......153

The king discovers the secret league be­
tween Douglas, Ross, and Crawford . 153
Douglas attacks the chancellor . . 154
His power still dreaded by the king . 154
His reception of Sir Patrick Gray, the

king’s messenger .... 155
Douglas sent for, and assassinated in

Stirling castle by the king . . . 157
The Earl’s brother and successor sets

the king’s power at defiance . . 153
The Earl of Huntly made lieutenant-
general ......159

He defeats Crawford . . . .158
Insecurity of the country . . . 159
Conspiracy of James, ninth earl of

Douglas......159

Proceedings of parliament against the

Douglas party.....159

The loyal barons rewarded with lands

and dignities.....160

The king marches against Douglas, re­
duces and pardons him . . . 160
Conditions of his pardon . . . 161
The Earl, notwithstanding, enters into
a treasonable correspondence with
the English ministers
         . . . 162

Submission of the Earl of Crawford . 162
University of Glasgow founded . . 162
Intrigues of Douglas with the York

party in England .... 163
Death of Crichton, the late chancellor . 163
The king’s campaign in the Douglas

country......164

Douglas defeated at Arkinholme . . 164
James assembles his parliament at

Edinburgh on June 9, 1455         . . 165

Douglas declared a traitor . . . 165
He forms an alliance with the Earl of

Ross and the Lord of the Isles . . 165
Predatory expedition of Donald Balloch 166
Letter from James to Henry the Sixth

of England.....167

Extraordinary reply of the English King 167
Followed by war on the Borders . . 168
Measures adopted for strengthening the

crown.......163

Parliamentary enactments regarding

dress, war-beacons, and Border raids 170
Dispute with the Kiug of Norway as to

the Western Isles . . . .172
Truce with England .... 172
Douglas invades Scotland in conjunc­
tion with the Earl of Northumberland,
and is defeated by Angus . . . 172
The lordship of Douglas conferred upon
Angus .
           . . . . . 173


CONTENTS.                                              xi

PAGE

Provisions of Parliament regarding

arms, the Borders, and the pestilence 173
Act regarding the money of the realm . 175
Mutual support of the king and the

clergy.......176

Earldom of Mar annexed to the crown . 176
The Lord of the Isles seeks the royal
pardon, and is appointed a period of

probation......177

Prolongation of the truce with England,
and settlement of relations with fo­
reign powers.....178

Review of English affairs . . . 178
James attacks the York party in Nor
thumberland and Durham, in support
of Henry of Lancaster . . .179
Institution of the Session . . . 180
Acts of Parliament regarding “wapin-
schawings,” dress, leases, and other in­
ternal regulations . . . 180-184
James breaks the truce with England,

to aid Henry of Lancaster . . . 184
And besieges Roxburgh castle, where he

is killed......185

The queen is summoned to the army
with the young king .... 185

Her reception.....186

James’s government and policy , .186
His character and personal appearance 187

CHAP. IV.

JAMES THE THIRD.
1460-1488.

Accession of James the Third . . 187
He is crowned at Kelso .... 188
Conference at Dumfries between the
queen-mother and Henry the Sixth’s

queen......188

Feuds of the Island Lords . . . 188
A parliament assembles at Edinburgh

on the 23d Feb. 1460 . . . .188
Award of the King of France between

Norway and Scotland .... 189
Counsel of Regency formed . . . 189
Treaty between the Earl of Ross and

Edward the Fourth . . . .191
Rebellion of the Earl of Ross and its

failure......191

The nobility divided into two parties . 193
Death of the queen-mother . . . 194
Rise of the Boyd family, and their league
with the house of Fleming
         . . 194

Death and character of Bishop Kennedy 195
The king carried off by Lord Boyd and

other nobles:.....196

Boyd appointed governor of the king’s

person......197

Parliamentary enactments . . . 197
Intercourse between Scotland and Den­
mark .......199

Embassy to Copenhagen for the pur-
pose of negorating a marriage be­
tween the king and the Princess Mar­
garet of Denmark .... 200
Completion of the marriage . . . 202
Downfall of the house of Boyd . , 202
Sir Alexander Boyd executed . , 203

PAGE

Rise of the Hamiltons .... 204
Character and situation of the young

king.......204

Important enactments as to the adminis­
tration of justice, land tenure, consti­
tution of parliament, liability of ten­
ants for their lords’ debts . . . 205
St Andrews raised to the dignity of an

archiepiscopal see .... 206
Embassy to Rome of the bishop of St

Andrews......206

The bishop persecuted by the nobles on

his return......207

Intrigues of Lewis the Eleventh of

France......208

Enactment as to amendment of the laws 209
Birth of James the Fourth . . . 209

His betrothment.....210

The treaty of marriage .... 210
Continued rebellion of the Earl of Ross 211

He is pardoned.....211

The king attains his full majority . . 211
Causes which led to the disaffection of

the nobles towards the king . . 211
Character and proceedings of Albanv

and Mar...... 212

The characters of the king and his brother

contrasted......213

Secret conspiracy against Albany . . 213
He is committed to prison . . . 214
Parliament assembles and grants a sub­
sidy .......214

Rebellion of Albany and siege of Dun-
bar .......215

Embassy from France .... 215
Mysterious death of Mar . . . 216
Hostile attitudes of the French, English,

and Scottish kings .... 217
The Borderers cross the marches and

invade England.....218

Revolt of Albany to the English interest 218
The Scottish army stopped by a Papal bull

on their march . . . . . 219
Intrigues of the English king with the

Scottish nobles.....219

Rise and magnificence of Cochrane,
called Earl of Mar . . . .220

His murder, and the king’s seizure by
the nobles ...... 221

The king shut up in Edinburgh castle by

the nobles......222

Albany and the king’s party reconciled 223
Parliament assembles under the control

of Albany......224

He is made lieutenant-general of the

kingdom......224

His secret treaty with the English king 225
Deprived of his office by the king’s party 226
He garrisons the castle of Dunbar . 226
Death of Edward the Fourth
         . . 227

Renewal of the ancient league between

France and Scotland .                             227

Albany and Douglas invade Scotland,
with an English army, and are de­
feated . . . . . . .228

Douglas taken prisoner and pardoned . 228
Truce between Scotland and England . 229
Intrigues between the Scottish nobles

and Richard the Third . . .229
Meeting of parliament in the beginning
of 1485 ...... 230


xii                                             CONTENTS.

PAGE

Death of Queen Margaret of Scotland .    231

Real character of the king’s government    232
Intrigues of Albany’s party against the
king, and their attempts to gain the

prince.......    232

Parliament assembles on October 13,

1487.......    233

Prolongation of the truce with England    234
Estrangement of the prince from his

father.......    235

Open rebellion of the nobles and the

princes......    235

The king retires to his northern pro­
vinces .......
    236

The nobles proclaim the prince as James

the Fourth......    236

The king well received by the northern

barons......    236

He heads an army of thirty thousand

men.......    237

Skirmish between the contending parties

at Blackness.....    237

Temporary pacification . . .    237
The king returns to Edinburgh, and re­
wards his followers ....
    238
The insurrection breaks out afresh .
    239
Battle of Sauchie-burn . . . .240
Murder of the king ....
    240
His character misrepresented by two

different parties ....    241
His true character . . . 242-243

His personal appearance . . .    244

CHAP. V.

JAMES THE FOURTH.
1488-1497.

Accession of James the Fourth ’ ’. . 244

His connexion with the dethronement
of his father.....244

James crowned at Scone . . . 245

His attachment to Lady Margaret Drum-
mond.......246

Trial of the nobles who had opposed
him in arms.....246

Three years’ truce concluded with Eng­
land .......246

Measures for putting down theft, rob­
bery, and murder .... 247

Parliamentary acquittal of the present
king and his followers from the mur­
der of the late king .... 248

Various parliamentary enactments . 248

Insurrection in the northern counties . 249

Policy of the young king towards the
nobles......250

Lennox and the northern rebels de­
feated .......250

Brilliant exploits of Sir Andrew Wood at
sea.......251

Conspiracy of Lord Bothwell against the
king.......252

Parliament assembles at Edinburgh . 253

Important enactments regarding foreign
alliances and the internal administra­
tion .......253

The king begins to incline towards the
friends of his father, and withdraws

PAGE

his confidence from his own late sup­
porters ......253

Sir Andrew Wood becomes one of the
king’s most confidential servants . 254

The Earl of Angus concludes a secret
treaty with Henry the Seventh
          . 254

Secret desire of the king to break with
England ...... 255

Parliament assembles in the summer of
1493, and passes several important
laws......255-257

The king endeavours to attach to him­
self the Highland chiefs . . . 258

His repeated expeditions into the High­
lands .......258

James’s early intrigues with the Duchess
of Burgundy.....259

Perkin Warbeck corresponds with
James...... 260

Henry the Seventh discovers the intrigue 260

James’s intercourse with O’Donnel,
prince of Tirconnell .... 261

Warbeck arrives in Scotland and is re­
ceived with great honour . . . 261

He marries Lady Catherine Gordon . 261

James and Warbeck invade England . 262

Failure of the expedition and retreat of
the king......263

Negotiations for peace arc renewed by
Henry......263

Warbeck and his wife leave Scotland . 264

CHAP. VI.

JAMES THE FOURTH.

1497-1513.

Seven years’ truce with England . .    265
James’s progress to Inverness . .
    265
Attention to his navy and foreign com­
merce .......
    266

His energy in the administration of jus­
tice .......
    267

Foundation of King’s College, Aberdeen    268
Defensive alliance with France and

Denmark......    268

Treaty of marriage with England con­
cluded ......
    269

Suspicious death of Lady Margaret

Drummond and her sisters . .    270
Marriage of James with the Princess

Margaret of England ....    271
Rebellion in the north ....
    271
James’s measures regarding the High­
lands ......
    272

Court of Daily Council ....    273
Various important measures passed by

parliament......    273

Progress of the king to the Borders .    275

Extinction of the rebellion in the north    276
The king strengthens his ties with the

Continent......    276

Birth of a prince and his death . .    277

Embassy from the Pope . . .    277
The king visits the northern counties

unattended, and returns in state .    277

Embassy to France ....    277

Death of Henry the Seventh . . .    277
State of Scotland . . . . .279


CONTENTS.                                             xiii

PAGE

Naval affairs......    279

Introduction of printing . . .    280
The king’s love of pleasure and his pro

digality......    281

Symptoms of war with England . .    281
Exploits of the Bartons, and death of

Andrew Barton.....    282

Embassies from England, France, and

Spain.......    283

James’s warlike preparations . .    283
Embassy of Dacre and West . . .
    284
Poverty of the exchequer . . .
    284
Second embassy of West . . .
    285
Reinforcements from France and Den­
mark ......
    285

Arran’s foolish expedition against Ire­
land .......
    286

James assembles his army . . .    287

His defiance sent to Henry . . .    287

Preparations of the Earl of Surrey .    288

Stratagems to prevent war . . .    288
Muster of the Scottish host . . .289

Messages between James and Surrey .    290

Surrey’s skilful manoeuvres . . .    291

Infatuation of the Scottish king . .    291

Battle of Flodden.....    292

Defeat of the Scots and death of the

king.......293

Causes of the defeat . . . .294
Character of the king . . . .294

CHAP. VII.

JAMES THE FIFTH.

1513-1524.

State of Scotland.....    295”

Coronation of James the Fifth . .    296

Surrey disbands his army . . .    296
Evils of the minority arising from the
feuds of the clergy and the character

of the queen-mother ....    296
The Duke of Albany sends over De la

Bastie and Arran .                             297

The queen-mother delivered of a son .    298
She is appointed regent and marries the

Earl of Angus.....    298

French and English factions . . .    299
Death of Elphinston, bishop of Aber­
deen .......
    299

Feuds among the nobles . . .    299

Intrigues of Henry the Eighth . .    300

Arrival of Albany in Scotland . .    301

State of parties.....    301

Decisive measures of Albany         . .    301

The queen refuses to give up the king,

her son......    302

Treasonable conduct of Home . .    303

The queen-mother retires to the Borders    304

And afterwards flies to England . .    305

Unfounded accusations against Albany     306

Home and Angus desert the queen .    307

Henry’s intrigues in Scotland . .    307

Conspiracy of Arran against the regent    308

Home and his brother executed . .    309

Ungenerous conduct of France . .    309

Albany revisits that kingdom . .    310

Return of the queen-mother          . .    310

Murder of De la Bastie           . . .    311

PAGE

Activity of Arran.....    311

Albany requests the queen-mother to

resume the regency ....    312

State of the Highlands and Isles . .    312

Violence and ambition of Angus . .    313

Mission from Denmark ....    314

Truce between England and Scotland .    314

Feuds of the nobles and the clergy .    315

Embassy of Aubigny ....    316

Arrival of Albany in Scotland . .    317

His upright policy ....    318

Thwarted by the intrigues of Dacre .    318

Angus is compelled to fly . .    319
Difficulty of arriving at truth in these

times.......    320

Conduct of Bishop Gawin Douglas .    320

Henry’s imperious demands . .    320

Angus passes into France . . .    321

Preparations for war ....    321

Duplicity of the queen-mother . .    322

Albany’s expedition into England .    322

Observations on his conduct. . .    322

Difficulties of his situation . . .    323

His second visit to France . . .    323

Ferocity of the Border war . . .    324

Albany returns to Scotland . . .    324

Venality of the Scottish nobles . .    324

The Regent assembles his army . .    325

The Scottish nobles refuse to fight .    325

Disastrous result of the expedition .    326

Observations on the retreat . . .    327

Albany assembles a parliament . .    327

He returns to France ....    328

CHAP. VIII.

JAMES THE FIFTH.

1524-1528.

Revolution in the government . .    328

Successful intrigue of the queen-mother    329
Regency of Albany declared to have

ended......    329

Coalition between Arran and the queen-
mother ......
    329

She forms a connexion with Henry

Stewart......    330

Negotiation with France . . .    330

Venality of the Scottish nobles . .    330
Secret agreement between Angus and

Wolsey......    331

Angus returns to Scotland . . .    331
Pitiable state of the country . . .
    331
The factions of Albany, Arran, and An­
gus .......
    331

Parliament assembles at Edinburgh .    332
A committee of regency appointed .
    332
Angus’s attack upon the capital . .
    332
His recovery of the chief power . .
    333
Miserable situation of the country .
    334
Intrigues of the queen-mother . .
    334
Her conditional reconciliation with An­
gus .......
    334

She loses all weight in the government     335
She opens a secret negotiation with the

queen-mother of France . . .    335

Three years’ truce with England . .    336
The queen is divorced, and marries

Henry Stewart.....    336


xiv                                            CONTENTS.

PAGE

Parliament declares the minority of the

king at an end.....    337

Angus obtains possession of the young

king’s person.....    337

Tyranny of the Douglases . . .338
Buccleuch and Lennox attempt to de­
liver the king.....
    338

Lennox is killed ....    339

Parliament assembles ....    339

Remorse of Arran.....    340

Tyranny of the Douglases becomes in­
tolerable ......
    340

State of the Highlands . . . .341

Beaton the chancellor reconciled to An­
gus .......
    341

Martyrdom of Patrick Hamilton . .    342

Insolent tyranny of Angus . . .    343

Plot for the escape of the young king .    343

Its complete success ....    344

Despair and indignation of the Doug­
lases .......
    344

CHAP. IX.

JAMES THE FIFTH.

1528-1542.

James the Fifth assumes the supreme

power.......    345

His character at this time . . .    345

His policy upon his accession . .    346

Proceedings against the Douglases .    346

Their great power.....    347

State of the Borders . . . .348

Imprisonment of the Border barons .    348
Rebellion in the Orkneys . . .349

State of the Isles.....    350

Matrimonial negotiations . . .    350

Distracted state of the kingdom . .    350

Institution of the College of Justice .    351

State of Europe.....    352

Border war......    352

James’s northern progress . . .    353

Festivities in Athole ....    353

Negotiations with England . . .    354

Persecution of the Reformers         . .    355

Henry the Eighth offers the Princess

Mary in marriage to James . .    355

Matrimonial embassy to France . .    356

PAGE

The Papal legate Campeggio visits

Scotland......    356

James affianced to Marie de Bourbon .    356
Parliament assembles and passes vari­
ous enactments.....
    356

James resolves to visit the Court of

France, and a regency is appointed .    357
Becomes enamoured of the Princess
Magdalen of France . . , .358

Their marriage.....    358

Returns to Scotland with his queen .    358

Reflections on James’s policy . .    359

State of parties.....    359

Death of the queen ....    360
James’s second marriage . . .
    360
Forbes’s conspiracy against the king .
    360
He is tried, condemned, and executed .
    360
Conspiracy of Lady Glammis . .
    361
She is burned at the stake . . .361
Negotiations with England . . .
    362
Persecutions of the disciples of the Re­
formation ......
    362

Martyrdom of Kennedy and Russel .    363

Mission of Sir Ralph Sadler to James .    364

Fails in his great object . . .    865

James’s voyage to the Western Isles .    365
Sir James Hamilton’s conspiracy against

the king......    366

He is condemned and executed . .    367

Parliament assembles ....    367

Its wise provisions ....    368

Death of the queen-mother . . .    369

James loses both his sons . . .    370

Second embassy of Sadler . . .    370
James disappoints Henry of the inte-

view at York.....    371

Preparations of England for war . .    371

Defeat of the English at Hadden-Rig .    372
The Duke of Norfolk assembles an

army.......    372

James musters his host on the Borough-

muir.......    373

Disgraceful rout at the Solway Moss .    374

The calamity overwhelms the king .    374

Despair and death of James the Fifth .    375

His character.....    375

Notes and Illustrations . . .377

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