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HISTORY OF SCOTLAND.


EDINBURGH :

PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE AND COMPANY,

PAUL’S WORK.


THE

HISTORY OF SCOTLAND

FROM THE

ACCESSION OF ALEXANDER III. TO THE UNION.

BY

PATRICK FRASER TYTLER,

F.R.S.E. & F.A.S.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.
VOL. I.

EDINBURGH:
WILLIAM P. NIMMO,

1864

[BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PATRICK FRASER TYTLER]

CONTENTS OF VOL. I.

CHAP. I.

ALEXANDER THE THIRD.
1149-1292.

Accession of Alexander III. ... 1
State of the Kingdom . . . .1-3

Coronation......3

The King’s Marriage .... 4
Jealousy of English Influence . . 5
Change of Counsellors .... 6
Visit of Alexander and his Queen to Eng­
land .......7

The English faction put down by the

Comyns......7

Unhappy State of the Country . . 8
Second Visit of Alexander and his Queen
to the English Court .... 9
R Birth of the Princess Margaret at Windsor 9
Jealousies between Alexander and Haco,

king of Norway.....9

Haco invades Scotland .... 10
Details of the Norwegian Expedition 11-14
Distress of the Norwegian fleet . . 14
Battle of Largs, and defeat of the Nor­
wegians ..... 15-16

Death of King Haco in Orkney . . 17
Birth of a Scottish Prince ... 18
Submission of Man and the Western
Isles, and settlement of the quarrel

with Norway.....18

Demands of Fieschi, the Papal Legate,
on the Scottish clergy, and their spi­
rited resistance.....19

Marriage of Robert de Bruce, father of
King Robert Bruce, to Marjory, coun­
tess of Carrick.....19

Death of Henry III. of England, and

accession of Edward I. ... 20
Alexander III. and his Queen attend the

Coronation of Edward         ... 20

Alexander deputes the Earl of Carrick
to perform homage to Edward in his
name, for the lands which he holds of

him.......21

Marriage of Princess Margaret of Scot­
land to Eric, king of Norway . . 21
Marriage of the Prince Royal of Scotland 22
Death of the Prince Royal, and his sister,

Margaret, queen of Norway . . 22
Settlement of the succession, and second
marriage of Alexander III. . . 22

page
Death of Alexander III. . . .22
Reflections on his reign . . .
         23-24

Accession of Margaret, the granddaugh­
ter of Alexander III., and appoint­
ment of a Regency .... 24
Precarious state of the kingdom . . 24
Projects of Edward
         .... 24

Convention of Bruce, the Competitor,

and his friends, at Turnberry . . 25
Eric, king of Norway, sends Plenipoten­
tiaries to treat with Edward . . 26
Conferences at Salisbury . . 26-27
Meeting of the Scottish Estates at Brig-
ham .......28

Articles of the Treaty of Brigham . 28-29
Edward demands the delivery of the

Scottish castles, and is refused . . 29
Death of the Maiden of Norway . . 30
Troubled state of the kingdom . . 30
Edward’s measures .... 30
Conference at Norham .... 31
Ed ward’s claim as Lord Paramount . 31
The Competitors for the Crown assemble
at Norham, and recognise Edward as

Superior......32

Proceedings at Norham          . .         32-34

Edward’s progress through Scotland . 34
He meets the Competitors at Berwick . 34
Arguments of Bruce, and of Baliol
          35-37

Edward decides in favour of Baliol . 37
Baliol’s Coronation
          .... 38

He swears homage to Edward . . 38

CHAP. II.

JOHN BALIOL.

1292-1305.

Edward treats Baliol with harshness .      39

Baliol's subjection.....      39

Summoned to England ....      40

His reply......      40

Parliament at Scone ....      41
Baliol confined by the Scots, and a Re­
gency appointed.....
      42

Treaty with France, and War with Eng­
land .......
      42

Edward invades Scotland                              42
Siege and sack of Berwick . . .43

Baliol’s renunciation of his homage .      44


viii                                             CONTENTS.

PAGE

Defence of Dunbar by Black Agnes ,      44

Defeat of the Scots at Dunbar . .      45

Edward’s continued success ...      45

Baliol’s feudal penance ....      46

He is sent with his son to the Tower .      46

INTERREGNUM.
Edward’s Progress through Scotland .
      46
Carries the stone of Scone, and the Scot­
tish Regalia, to Westminster . .
      46
Holds his Parliament at Berwick . .
      47
Settlement of Scotland ....
      47
Hatred against the English ...
      48
Rise of William Wallace ...
      48

His first exploits.....      49

He is joined by Sir William Douglas .      49
Surprises and routs Ormesby, the Eng­
lish Justiciary.....
      49

Wallace joined by the Steward of Scot­
land, and other barons ...
      50
Inconsistent conduct of Bruce . .
      50
Henry Percy invades Scotland . ,
      51
Convention at Irvine ....
      51
Wallace’s successes ....
      52
Critical position of the English army .
      53
Battle of Stirling, and defeat of the Eng-

lish.......      54

Surrender of Dundee to Wallace . .      55

He occupies Berwick ....      55
Wallace invades England . . 50-57

Lord Robert Clifford invades Annandale     57

Wallace chosen Governor of Scotland .      58

Edward’s decided measures ...      59

Earl of Surrey advances to Roxburgh .      59

Edward invades Scotland ...      60

Difficulties of Wallace ....      60
Edward advances to Templeliston, now

Kirkliston......      61

Critical situation of the English army .      62
Treachery of the Earls of Dunbar and

Angus......      62

Position of the two armies ...      63

Defeat of the Scots at Falkirk . .      64

Edward’s Progress after the battle .      65

Retreats to Carlisle ....      65

Wallace resigns the office of Governor .      66

A Regency appointed ....      66
The King of France’s efforts to bring

about peace.....      67

Baliol retires to France . .                       68

Edward assembles an army ...      68
The Scottish Regents become masters of

Stirling......      69

Edward invades Scotland ...      69

His difficulties.....      69

A Truce.......      70

The Pope claims Scotland as belonging

to the Church of Rome . . 70-71

Edward’s indignation ....      71

Parliament at Lincoln ....      72
Letter of the barons and community of

England to the Pope ....      72

Edward invades Scotland ...      73
The Scots deserted by the Pope and by

Philip.......      74

English defeated at Roslin ...      75

Ungenerous conduct of Philip . .      75

Distresses of the Scots ....      76

Edward invades Scotland ...      76

His desolating progress and success .      77

Submission of Comyn the Governor .      78

PAGE

Wallace retreats into the mountains .      78
Siege and reduction of Stirling castle 79-81

Edward’s severity.....      81

Wallace betrayed by Sir John Menteith       81

His trial and execution ....      82

Settlement of Scotland by Edward .      83

CHAP. III.

ROBERT BRUCE.
1305-1314.

Early character of Bruce ...      83

His great estates and connexions . .      83

Rivalry with the Comyns ...      85
Is in favour with Edward I. . . .86

Relative situation of Bruce and Comyn       86

Agreement between Bruce and Comyn .      86

Comyn betrays the design                             86

Comyn slain by Bruce and Kirkpatrick       87

Critical situation of Bruce ...      88

He openly asserts his right to the Crown      88

He is crowned at Scone ....      89

Measures taken by Edward ...      90
He proceeds to Carlisle . . . .91

Bruce defeated at Methven ...      91
Bruce and his friends driven into the

mountains......      92

Attacked by the Lord of Lorn . .      92

Sends his Queen to Kildrummie castle .      93

Bruce takes refuge in Rachrin . .      93

Edward’s severity.....      93

Cruel imprisonment of the Countess of

Buchan......      94

Execution of Nigel Bruce, Christopher
de Seton, the Earl of Athole, and Sir

Simon Fraser.....      95

Bruce and his adherents excommuni­
cated .......
      96

Bruce in Arran.....      96

He passes over to Carrick and attacks

Lord Percy......      97

Sir James Douglas storms Douglas castle      97
Execution of Thomas and Alexander

Bruce.......      98

Bruce attacked by John of Lorn and

Lord Pembroke.....      99

Bruce defeats Pembroke at Loudon Hill    100

He defeats the Earl of Gloucester . .    101

Death of Edward 1......    101

Bruce, and Edward Bruce, invade Gal­
loway .......
    101

Edward II. appoints the Earl of Rich­
mond Governor of Scotland . .
    102
He attacks Bruce, who retreats to the

north of Scotland . . . .102

Bruce’s dangerous sickness . . .    102
He defeats the Earl of Buchan at In­

verury.......    102

Continued success of Bruce . . .    103

Indecision of Edward II. . . .    103

Edward Bruce reduces Galloway . .    104

Successes of Sir James Douglas . .    105

Randolph taken prisoner by Douglas .    105

Interview between Randolph and Bruce    105
Bruce defeats the Lord of Lorn at Loch

Awe.......    106

Fluctuating policy of Edward II. . .    106
Meeting of the Scottish Estates at

Dundee......    107


CONTENTS.                                              ix

PAGE

Its important proceedings in favour of

Bruce.......    107

Edward II. invades Scotland . .    107

Bruce ravages the bishopric of Durham     108

He takes Perth.....    109

Bruce invades England ....    110

Unsuccessful assault of Carlisle . .    110
His successes in Scotland . . .111

Castle of Linlithgow taken by Binny .    111
Roxburgh castle taken by Sir James

Douglas......    111

Edinburgh castle taken by Randolph .    112

Bruce reduces the Isle of Man . .    113
Edward Bruce lays siege to Stirling

castle.......    113

His imprudent treaty ....    113
Edward II. makes great preparations to

relieve Stirling.....    114

Bruce assembles his army . . .    115

Its numbers and position . . .    115

The advance of the English . . .    116

Conflict between Randolph and Clifford    116
Personal conflict between Bruce and Sir

Henry de Boune.....    117

Clifford defeated.....    117

Bruce addresses his troops . . .    118

Circumstances before the battle . .    118
Battle of Bannockburn, and total de­
feat of the English . . . 119-121

Edward flees to Dunbar ....    122

Courtesy of Bruce.....    122

Reflections upon the battle . . .    123

CHAP. IV.

ROBERT BRUCE.
1314-1329.

Douglas and Edward Bruce invade Eng­
land .......
    124

Unsuccessful negotiations for peace .    125
Famine in England and Scotland . .
    125
A Scottish force ravages Northumber­
land .......
    125

Acts regarding the succession to the

Crown.......    126

Marriage of Marjory Bruce to Walter

the High Steward . . . .126

Invasion of Ireland by Edward Bruce .    126

He is crowned King of Ireland . .    127

Defeated and slain.....    127

Expedition of Bruce against the Western

Isles.......    128

Imprisonment of John of Lorn . .    128

Birth of Robert II.....    129

Death of the Princess Marjory . .    129
The Scots attack Wales . . . .129

Bruce invades Yorkshire . . .    129

Exploit of Sir James Douglas . .    129
The Bishop of Dunkeld repulses the

English at Donibristle . . .    130
Interference of the Pope . . .
    130
Mission of the Papal Nuncios into Scot­
land .......
    130

Their interview with Bruce . . .    131

Mission of Adam Newton into Scotland     133
Bruce refuses to receive him or his

letters.......    133

Siege of Berwick.....    133

The town and castle taken by Bruce .    134

PAGE

Walter, the High Steward, made Gover­
nor of Berwick.....
    135

Bruce excommunicated by the Cardinal

Legates......    135

Parliament at Scone ....    135

Measures regarding the succession .    135

Other enactments.....    136

Berwick besieged by Edward II. . .    136

He is defeated and repulsed . . .    138
English defeated at Mitton . . .139

A truce for two years ....    140
Letter from the Scottish nobles to the

Pope.......    140

Conspiracy against Bruce . . .    142

Edward II. invades Scotland . .    143

Judicious policy of Bruce . . .    143

Retreat and loss of the English . .    144

Defeat of Edward II. at Biland Abbey .    145

Truce of thirteen years ....    146
Bruce ratifies it as King of Scotland—to

which Edward consents . . .    146

Mission of Randolph to the Papal court     146
A son, afterwards David II., born to

Bruce.......    146

Abortive negotiations for peace with

England......    147

Treaty of alliance with France . .    147
Accession of Edward III. to the throne

of England......    148

His great preparations against Scot­
land .......
    148

Bruce attacked by sickness . . .    148
Randolph and Douglas invade England
     149
Edward advances against them to Dur­
ham .......
    149

Particulars of this expedition . .    149

Distress of the English army . . .    150
Superior skill and tactics of the Scottish

leaders......    151

Exploit of Sir James Douglas . .    152

Strong position of the Scots on the Wear    152
Their skilful retreat . . . .153

Distress of the English army . . .    153
Anxiety of the English government for

peace.......    153

Bruce invades England in person . .    154
Arrival of English commissioners in his

camp.......    154

Negotiations for peace ....    154
Edward agrees to acknowledge Bruce as
King, and to renounce all claim of

superiority over Scotland . . .    154

Peace of Northampton ....    155

Particulars of the treaty . . .    155

Reflections......    156

Marriage of the Princess Joanna of Eng­
land to the Prince Royal of Scotland .
    157
Death of Robert Bruce ....
    157
His last advice and counsel . . .
    157
Reflections on his character . . .
    159
Discovery of his body ....
    160

CHAP. V.

DAVID THE SECOND.

1329-1346.

Situation of Scotland on the death of

King Robert Bruce . . . .160
Character of Edward III. . . .160


x                                               CONTENTS.

PAGE

Dangers from the ambition of Edward

Baliol.......161

Regency of Randolph .... 161
Expedition of Sir James Douglas to the

Holy Land, with the heart of Bruce . 161
Coronation of David II. ... 163
Threatening aspect of affairs in Scotland 163
Conspiracy of Henry Beaumont, and the
disinherited barons, against the go­
vernment ......163

They combine with Edward Baliol         . 163

Death of the Regent Randolph . . 164
The Earl of Mar chosen Regent . . 164
Invasion of Scotland by the disinherited

barons.......164

They land at Kinghorn, and advance to

Perth.......164

Perilous situation of Baliol and Beau­
mont .......165

Treacherous conduct of Murray of Tulli-

bardine......165

Surprise of the Scots at Dupplin Moor . 165
Brave conduct and death of young Ran­
dolph, earl of Moray .... 165
Military incapacity of the Earl of Mar,

and great loss of the Scots . . . 166
Baliol occupies Perth .... 166
Treacherous conduct of the Earl of
March, and accession of this baron to
the English party .... 166
Coronation of Baliol .... 167
Causes of this revolution . . . 167
The friends of David Bruce resume hos­
tilities, and storm Perth . . . 168
Baliol acknowledges Edward as his feu­
dal lord, and resigns the liberties of

the kingdom.....168

The Earl of Moray suddenly attacks him
at Annan, and drives him out of the

kingdom......169

The English King accuses the Scots of
having broken the treaty of North­
ampton ......169

The Border inroads recommence with

great fury......169

Capture of the Knight of Liddesdale . 169
Of the Regent, Sir Andrew Moray
         . 170

Election of Archibald Douglas to the

Regency......170

Edward III. invades Scotland in person,

and commences the siege of Berwick 170
Its brave defence by Sir Alexander Seton 170
Thomas Seton, the son of the Scottish

governor, is hanged .... 171
The citizens compel Seton to negotiate

with the English King . . . 171
Sir William Keith chosen governor, and

Seton deposed.....171

Interview between Keith and Archibald

Douglas, the Scottish regent . . 171
He persuades him to hazard a battle for

the relief of Berwick . . . .171
Imprudence of this resolution . . 171
The Scots cross the Tweed, and encamp
at Dunse Park—the English occupy
the eminence of Halidon Hill—order

of battle......172

Battle of Halidon Hill . . . .172
Great defeat sustained by the Scots . 173

Conduct of Edward III.....174

Impolicy of his measures . . . 174

PAGE

Baliol dismembers the kingdom of Scot­
land, surrenders its liberties, and
swears homage to Edward . . . 174
Disputes break out between Baliol and

the disinherited barons . . . 175
Sir Andrew Moray returns from capti­
vity—he is joined by Alexander de
Mowbray, and resumes warlike opera­
tions against Baliol—Talbot is taken

prisoner......175

Henry de Beaumont besieged in Dun-
darg castle by Moray and Mowbray—
capitulates, and retires to England . 175
Robert, the Steward of Scotland, escapes
from Bute, where he had concealed
himself, to Dumbarton . . . 176
He is joined by Colin Campbell of Lochow,

and storms the castle of Dunoon . 176
The castle of Bute is taken by the Bran-

danes of Bute.....176

William de Carruthers, who had taken

refuge in Annandale, joins the Steward 176
Randolph, earl of Moray, returns from
France, and begins to act against the

English......176

The Steward and the Earl of Moray are

chosen Regents.....176

They attack the Earl of Athole, and com­
pel him to surrender .... 177
Edward III. invades Scotland in the

middle of winter.....177

Baliol again accompanies him . . 177
Siege of Lochleven castle by the English 177
Parliament held at Dairsay by the friends

of David Bruce.....177

Breaks up in confusion, owing to the

ambition of the Earl of Athole . . 178
The English king invades Scotland at

the head of a large army . . , 178
His fleet anchors in the Firth of Forth . 178
Encounter between the Earls of Moray

and March and the Earl of Namur . 178
Capture of the Earl of Moray . . 179
The English king and Edward Baliol
march from Perth through the north­
ern provinces.....179

The Earl of Athole joins the English . 179

Is made Governor.....179

Attacked by Sir Andrew Moray, and

slain at Kilblene.....180

Sir Andrew Moray chosen Regent . . 180
Edward III. again invades Scotland . 180
Finds it impossible to bring Moray to a

battle.......180

Edward raises the siege of the castle of

Lochendorb......181

Wastes the province of Moray . . 181
Repairs the fortresses of the kingdom,

and returns to England . . . 181
Sir Andrew Moray recovers the castles of

Dunotter, Kinclevin, and Laurieston 181
Recovers the greater part of the kingdom 181
Famine in Scotland .
                             181

Exertions of the French king in favour

of the Scots.....182

Edward is occupied by his schemes of

French conquest.....182

His exertions in the Scottish war grow

languid......182

Makes overtures of peace, which are re­
fused by the Scots . . . .182


CONTENTS.                                               xi

PAGE

Edward makes his public claim to the

crown of France.....    182

Leaves an army in Scotland under Baliol

and the Earl of Salisbury . . .182
Salisbury lays siege to the castle of Dun-
bar .......
    182

Famous defence of this fortress by Black

Agnes of Dunbar ....    182

Salisbury is compelled to raise the siege    183
Jousts between the English and Scottish

knights......    183

War is resumed.....    184

Sir Alexander Ramsay’s exploits against

the English......    184

Death of the Regent, Sir Andrew Moray    184
Mission of the Knight of Liddesdale to

France......    185

Siege of Perth, and arrival of the French

auxiliaries......    185

Defection of Bullock . . . .185

Surrender of Perth to the Steward .    186

Dreadful state of the country . .    186

Siege of Stirling.....    186

Edinburgh castle taken by the Scots

under the Knight of Liddesdale .    187

Return of David II. to his kingdom .    187
Character of the king, and state of the

country......    188

Roxburgh castle taken by Sir Alexander

Ramsay......    188

Ramsay assassinated by the Knight of

Liddesdale......    188

Miserable death of William Bullock, the

Chancellor . . . . . .189

Two years’ truce.....    189

Treachery of the Knight of Liddesdale .    189

Hostilities recommence with great fury     190

David assembles his army at Perth .    190

Invades England in person . . .    190

Storms the castle of Liddel . . .    190
Advances to Hexham, and encamps at

Beaurepair......    191

Disposition of his army ....    191

Battle of Durham.....    191

Disastrous defeat of the Scots . .    192
The Scottish king is taken prisoner .
    192
Carried to the Tower . . . .192
Consequences of the battle of Durham .
    193
Edward Baliol invades and ravages Scot­
land .......
    193

Mysterious interference of Prince Lionel

in the affairs of Scotland . . .193

The High Steward is elected Regent .    193

CHAP. VI.

DAVID THE SECOND.
1346-1370.

Policy of Edward III. Avith regard to

Scotland......194

Execution of the Earl of Menteith . 194
William, earl of Douglas, returns from

France......194

Continued truces between Scotland and

England......194

David revisits his dominions upon his

parole .                                                      195

Pestilence in Scotland . . . .195

PAGE

David’s mysterious intrigues with Ed­
ward III.......
    195

Consents to recognise the King of Eng­
land as his Lord Paramount . .
    195
Treachery of the Knight of Liddesdale .
    195
David is forced to return to his captivity
    195
Murder of the Knight of Liddesdale .
    196
Negotiations for David’s ransom . .
    196
Arrival of the Sieur de Garencieres from

France......    197

The negotiations for the king’s ransom

unsuccessful.....    197

The English break the truce . . .197
Action of Nesbit Moor . . . .197

Berwick taken by the Scots . . .    198
Edward III. invades Scotland at the

head of a great army ....    198

Berwick is taken.....    198

Baliol, at Roxburgh, surrenders the king­
dom to Edward.....
    199

Measures adopted by the Scots . .    199
Splendour and strength of the English

army.......    200

The Earl of Douglas’s able conduct .    200
Edward advances through Scotland, and

destroys the country by fire and sword    200
His fleet is dispersed, and he is com­
pelled to retreat.....
    201

Resumes negotiations for peace . .    201

David’s ransom is settled . . .    201

The Steward calls a parliament . .    202
Final negotiation with regard to the

king’s liberty.....    202

Reflections on the state of the country .    203

David returns to Scotland . . .    203

Calls a parliament.....    203

Its important provisions . . 203-204
Edward III. changes his policy with re­
spect to Scotland ....
    205
His intrigues with the Scottish nobles .
    205
He favours the Scottish merchants .
    205
Passion amongst the Scots for foreign

adventure......    206

David pays the first instalment of his

ransom......    206

Opens a negotiation with France . .    207
Edward prevails on some of the Scottish
barons to accompany him in his in­
vasion of France ....
    207

Treaty of Bretigny.....    207

France renounces her alliance with the

Scots.......    207

Scotland visited by great inundations

and the pestilence ....    207
Murder of Catherine Mortimer, the king’s

mistress......    208

Secret negotiation with England . .    208

Commercial prosperity of Scotland .    209

Scottish students flock to England .    209
Unsuccessful negotiation for a final

peace with England ....    210

Death of Joanna, the Scottish queen .    210
Scottish parliament at Scone — David
proposes to the Scottish Estates, that
Prince Lionel should succeed him in

the throne......    210

Indignant refusal of the parliament .    211

Renewed negotiation for a peace . .    211
The Steward and his party rise against

David.......    212

Unusual energy of the king . . .212


xii                                             CONTENTS.

PAGE

The two parties compose their differences 212
The Steward renews his fealty . . 213
David’s marriage with Margaret Logy . 213
He throws the Steward into prison . 213
David again engages in a secret treaty

with England.....214

Its terms and conditions . . 214-215
Sir Henry Picard’s feast . . . 216
Parliament at Perth .... 216
Its deliberations .... 216-217
Negotiation between the English and

Scottish commissioners . ...... . 218
Heads of a new treaty of peace . . 218
Truce prorogued for four years . . 219
Parliament at Perth . . . .219

Its resolutions.....219

State of the country .... 219
Edward’s artful policy ... - 220
His success in neutralising the spirit of

opposition......220

His actual possessions in Scotland . 220
He increases in his demands
         . . 221

Great exertions made by the Scots . 221
Parliament convoked at Scone . . 221
Its deliberations and resolutions . , 222
Rebellion in the north . . . . 223

Sumptuary laws.....223

Feuds amongst the Scottish nobles . 223
Their contempt for the laws . . . 223
Desert their country to engage in for­
eign wars......224

Serious defalcation in the revenue of

the crown......224

Attempt of the Parliament to re-establish

it........224

Regulations regarding the Scottish es­
tates in the hands of the English . 225
Renewed abortive attempts at nego­
tiation
          ......225

David and his queen visit England . 225
Extraordinary state of the relations be­
tween the two countries . . . 225
Power of Edward over Scotland . . 226
Parliament held at Scone . . . 226
Account of its proceedings . . . 227
Provisions for the defence of the country 227
The truce is within a year of its expiry 227
Miserable state of Scotland . . . 227
Parliament make a last effort to pay the

ransom......227

Edward again breaks with France         . 228

He is compelled to relax in his efforts

against Scotland .... 228
The truce is renewed for fourteen years 228
David undertakes an expedition in per­
son against the northern rebels . . 228
Submission of John of the Isles . . 228
Parliament at Perth . . . .229
Innovation in the constitution of parlia­
ment .......229

Extraordinary and unjust measures as

to the king’s debts . . . .229
Attempt to equalise the taxation . . 230
Regulations as to the administration of

justice.......230

Divorce of the queen .... 230
She carries her cause before the pope . 231

Death of David II.....231

Character of this prince .... 231

HISTORICAL INQUIRY INTO THE ANCIENT
STATE AND MANNERS OF SCOTLAND,

From the Accession of Alexander III. to the
Death of David II.

PAGE

Introductory Remarks . . .232
sect. i.—general appearance of the

COUNTRY.

Covered by extensive forests and marshes    233

Royal castles......    235

Baronial castles.....    235

Their number and extent . . .    236

Cottages of the lower vassals around them    236
Villages situated on the large feudal

estates......    236

Condition of these early villages . .    237
Monasteries and religious houses . .
    237
Their great number and extensive pos­
sessions ......
    238

Early agriculture.....    238

Royal manors.....    238

Feudal estates belonging to the nobles

and clergy......    239

System of agriculture ....    239

Crops raised at this period . . .    240

Farm stocking—animals . . .    240

Breeding of horses         ....    240

Flocks of sheep, cattle, swine, goats .    241

Attention to the dairy ....    241

Poultry not neglected ....    241

Fish in great abundance . . .    242

Attention paid to the fisheries . .    242

SECT. II.—DISTINCT RACES IN SCOTLAND.

Animosities between them . . .    243

Their marked differences under David I.    243

Normans, Gralwegians, Saxons . .    244

Norwegians......    245

Blending of the Normans and Saxons .    245
Ranks under the feudal government in

Scotland......    245

Power and consequence of the king .    245

Wealth of the royal revenue . . .    245

Sources of the royal revenue . . .    246

Personal state of the Scottish king .    247
Under Malcolm Canmore, Alexander L,

and Alexander III.....    247

Great officers of the crown . . .    248

Justiciar......    248

His authority pre-eminent . • .    249

Of Norman origin.....    249

Chancellor......    249

Early introduction of sheriffs . .    250
Greater barons had their sheriffs and

other officers.....    250

Power of holding their own court . .    250
The clergy the first who obtain this .
    251
A superior baron a king in miniature .
    251
An inquest the common mode of deter­
mining disputes.....
    252

Offices of constable, mareschal, senes­
chal, and chamberlain . . .
    252
Feudal system a barrier to improvement

in Scotland......    253

State of the lower orders . . .    253

Liberi firmarii, or free farmers . .    253

Villeyns, or bondmen ....    253

The undoubted property of their master    253


CONTENTS.                                             xiii

PAGE

Genealogies of slaves kept . . .    254

Mark of freemen.....    255

Manumission of slaves ....    255

Continuance of slavery ....    256

SECT. III.—ANCIENT PARLIAMENT OF SCOTLAND.

National council.....    256

No parliament under David I. nor Mal­
colm IV.......
    256

Nor under William the Lion . .    257
Traces of a parliament under this prince

fallacious .... .    257

No parliament under Alexander II. .    257

Proofs of this assertion ....    257

No parliament under Alexander III. .    258
First appearance of a parliament after

the death of this prince . . .    259

Non-attendance of burgesses . .    259
State of the parliament under John

Baliol.......    260

Community of burghs appear by their

representatives in 1305 . . .    260
No record of a parliament during the

war of liberty.....    261

Parliament in 1315         . . . .261

Heads of the community of burghs sit

in it.......    261

Parliament in 1326 . . . .261
Burghs certainly sent their representa­
tives .......
    261

Edward Baliol’s parliament in 1333 .    262

Non-attendance of burghs . . .    262

Period of great confusion . . .    262
Clear light as to the constitution of the

Scottish parliament in 1357 . .    262
Unquestionable evidence of the repre­
sentation of the burghs . . .
    262
Earliest appearance of committees of par­
liament . . . . .263
Conclusion of the subject . . .
    264

SECT. IV.—EARLY COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION.

Symptoms of commercial wealth at an

early period.....    264

Commerce under David I.                            264
Introduction of the Flemings into Scot­
land .......
    265

Early attention to shipbuilding and navi­
gation .......
    265

Flourishing state of the arts and manu­
factures in the Hebrides . . .
    266
Riches of the Lords of Galloway . .
    266
Shipbuilders at Inverness in 1249 . .
    266
Clergy led the way in commercial enter­
prise .......
    266

Exports of Scotland at this period . .    267
Wealth of the country derived from

trade.......    267

Rise of the towns and burghs . .    268
Collections of houses round the castles .
    268
These villæ become mercantile commu­
nities .......
    268

Protected by the sovereign . . .    269
Settlement of the English in these in­
fant towns......
    269

Earliest burghs in Scotland . . .    269

The king their exclusive proprietor .    269
Court of the Four Burghs . . .270
Burghs belonging to religious houses and
to the greater barons . . . .270

PAGE

Increase in the trade and manufactures

of Scotland......    271

Great commercial wealth of Berwick .    271
Constitution and magistracy of the

burghs......    272

Commerce of Scotland previous to the

competition for the crown . . .    272

Exports.......    272

Imports.......    273

Foreign trade under the reign of Bruce     273

Sources of national wealth at this period    274

Naval force of Scotland ....    274
Mode of fitting out a fleet the same in

both countries.....    275

Scottish privateers larger than the Eng­
lish .......
    275

They greatly annoy the English com­
merce .......
    276

Scottish commerce in 1348 . . .    276

Money of Scotland          ....    276

Silver money of Alexander I. and David I.    277
Frequency of clipping in England and

Scotland......    277

Depreciation of the money by Robert

Bruce.......    278

Same depreciation in England by Ed­
ward III.......
    278

Depreciation of the Scottish money in

1354.......    278

Proclamation against it by Edward III.     278
Further depreciation of the Scottish

money in 1366.....    279

Effects of this depreciation . . .    279
Early prices of labour and of the neces­
saries of life.....
    279

Prices of grain and provisions . .    280

Wages of labour.....    281

Price of luxuries .                                      282
Rent and value of land . . . .283
In 1281 land valued at ten years’ pur­
chase .......
    284

SECT. V.—STATE OF THE EARLY SCOTTISH
CHURCH.

Religious instruction of the people ne­
glected......284

Early relations with Rome . . . 284
Successful struggles against the en­
croachments of the sees of York and

Canterbury......285

Contention with the Popedom . . 285
Firm character of William the Lion . 286
His opposition to Pope Alexander is suc­
cessful ......286

High privileges conferred by Pope Lu­
cius on the Scottish Church . . 286
Struggles of Alexander II. with the

Popedom......286

That monarch excommunicated . . 286
Pope Honorius permits the Scottish
clergy to hold a general council of
their own authority .... 287
They take advantage of this temporary

permission to establish a general right 287
The king refuses to admit a papal legate

into his dominions .... 287

State of the Church under Alexander III. 288

Learning of the Church          . . .289

Character of the scholastic learning of

the time......289


xiv                                                   CONTENTS.

PAGE

Scholastic theology . . . .289
Scottish scholars of those times . . 289
Richard St Victor—Sacrobosco—Michael

Scott.......289

The nobles and the people completely

ignorant......290

Schools in the principal towns . . 291
In the monasteries and convents . . 291
Scottish college at Paris founded in 1325 291
Scholars educated abroad . . . 292
Monkish annalists .... 292
Barbour, the metrical historian . . 292
Thomas the Rhymer . . . .293
Romance of “Sir Tristrem” . . . 293
Language of the period .... 294
Formation of the Scoto-Saxon . . 294
Norman-French understood by the Scot­
tish nobles......294

Style and language of “ Sir Tristrem” . 295
Other early Scottish poets and ro­
mances ......295

Hucheon of the Awle Ryall . . .295
Wandering minstrels .... 296
Harp, tabor, and the horn, used in Scot­
land .......297

Minstrels in the time of Alexander III. 297
Robert Bruce kept his minstrels . . 297
Scottish ballad on the battle of Bannock-
burn .......298

Enmity between the minstrels and the

clergy.......298

Music of this period, and musical in­
struments ......299

Organs under Alexander III. . . 299
Church music of the period . . . 300
The clergy great encouragers and prac-
tisers of the useful and ornamental

arts.......300

Clergy the principal architects of the age 300
State of architecture .... 300
Early Saxon fortresses .... 301
Scoto-Norman castles .... 301
A description of their general construc­
tion ........302

Caerlaverock in 1300 . . . .302
Most other castles similar to it . . 302
Great skill of the Norman architects . 302
Disposition of the apartments in the

castles.......303

Randolph’s hall at Darnaway         . . 303

Outer fortifications of the castle . . 304
Apartments of wood .... 304
Bedford castle, as described by Camdeu 304
Houses within burgh built of wood . 305
Monasteries, cathedrals, and religious

houses.......305

Gothic architecture .... 305
Ingenious hypothesis of Sir James Hall 306
Our earliest Norman architects in­
structed by Italians .... 306
Ancient wooden churches . . . 306
First introduction of the ribbed ceiling

in stone......306

Teutonic style.....307

Travelling corporations of Roman archi­
tects .......307

Sir Christopher Wren’s description of

them.......307

Introduction of the Gothic architecture
into Scotland in the beginning of the
twelfth century.....307

SECT. VI.—SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS OF
ANCIENT SCOTLAND.

PAGE

Hunting.......308

Its ancient laws in Scotland . . . 309
State of, under David I. and Alexander

III........309

Hawking......309

Light thrown on hunting by the ro­
mance of “ Sir Tristrem " . . . 310
Robert Bruce fond of hunting . . 310
Scottish stag-hounds .... 311
Hawks imported from Norway . . 311
Amusements within doors . . . 311
Splendour of banquets .... 311
Early appearance of chivalry in Scot­
land .......312

Faint traces of it under Duncan and

Alexander 1......313

Its subsequent progress under William

the Lion......313

The Crusades.....314

Tournaments......314

Chivalry under Robert Bruce         . . 314

Contrast between the chivalrous charac­
ter of Bruce and Edward III. . . 315
Sternness of Bruce in enforcing military

discipline......315

Arms and dress of this period . . 315
Arms and dress of the Celtic tribes under

David I.......315

Arms and dress of the Scoto-Saxons . 316
Changes introduced by the Normans . 317
Arms of the Scoto-Normans . . . 318

Body-armour......318

Horse-armour.....319

Arms of the lower classes . . . 319
Battle-axe, iron mace, short daggers,

used by the Scottish knights . . 320
Armour of David earl of Huntingdon . 320
Shield used by the Scottish knights . 321
Friendship between William the Lion

and Richard 1......321

Its effects......321

Armour of Alexander I. ... 321
Similarity in the arms and military cos­
tume of both countries, under subse­
quent kiDgs.....321

Science of war the same in both . , 321
Attack and defence of fortified places . 322
Inferiority of the Scots in the use of the

bow.......323

It never became a national weapon as

in England......323

Assize of arms by Robert Bruce in 1319 323
Civil dress of the times .... 323
Dress of kings and nobles . . . 323
Female costume, its great elegance . 323
Dress of the ladies in France, England,

and Scotland, the same . . . 324
Description of female dresses in the ro­
mance of “ The Rose "
                              324
Picturesque effect of the dress of the

times.......324

Useful and ornamental arts . . . 325


CONTENTS.                                              xv

CHAP. VII.

ROBERT THE SECOND.

1370-1390.

PAGE

Accession of Robert the Second . . 326
Unexpected opposition by the Earl of

Douglas......326

Obscurity of the motives which guided

him.......327

Spirited conduct of Sir Robert Erskine,

and the Earls of March and Moray . 327
Douglas renounces his opposition . . 327
Coronation of the king .... 327
Indolent character of the new monarch 328
Situation of the country
         . . . 328

Condition of England . . . .329
Scotland enters into a new treaty with

France......329

Symptoms of hostility on the part of

England......330

Parliament held at Scone, March 2,1371 330
Death of the Black Prince and of Ed­
ward III.......331

Causes of animosity between the two

countries......331

The Earl of March sacks and burns the

town of Roxburgh .... 331
The Borderers fly to arms . . . 332
Warden raid by Hotspur . . . 332
Singular dispersion of the English army 332
Mercer, a Scottish naval adventurer, in­
fests the English shipping , . . 332
The fleet consists of Scottish, French,

and Spanish privateers . . . 333
Mercer is taken by Philpot, a London

merchant......333

Observations on the mutual situation of

the two countries .... 333
Perpetual infringements of the truce . 333
Berwick taken by Sir Alexander Ramsay 333
Retaken by the Earl of Northumberland 334
Conflict between Sir Archibald Douglas

and Sir Thomas Musgrave,         . . 334

Invasion of Scotland by John of Gaunt 334
Cessation of hostilities .... 334
Insurrection of Tyler, during which the
Duke of Lancaster finds a retreat in

Scotland......335

New treaty with France          . . . 335

Truce with England expires, and war

recommences.....335

John of Gaunt again invades Scotland . 335
He advances to Edinburgh . . . 335
Truce between France and England noti­
fied in Scotland.....336

A party of French knights arrive in
Scotland, and Lancaster retreats to

England......336

The king desirous for peace, but the

nobles determine to continue the war 336
They break the truce and invade Eng­
land .......336

Parliament meets at Edinburgh . . 336
Its various provisions .... 337
Expedition of John de Vienne, admiral

of France, into Scotland . . . 338
The French determine to attack England

at the same time by sea . . . 338
Vienne’s fleet arrives in Scotland . . 338

PAGE

Difficulty of finding them quarters—dis­
content of the Scots . . . .339
Scottish peasantry rise against them . 339
Scottish king arrives at Edinburgh . 339
He is anxious for peace, but is over­
ruled .......339

An army of thirty thousand horse as­
sembled near Edinburgh . . . 339
Council of war, and regulations for the

conduct of the army .... 339
Commencement of the campaign . . 340
King of England assembles a great army 340
Tactics of the Scots and French . . 341
Disadvantages under which the English

made war in Scotland .... 341
Discontent of the French in not being

allowed to fight.....341

Anecdote of Vienne and Douglas . . 341
Richard II. pushes on to the capital . 341
Devastations committed by the English 341

Edinburgh burnt.....341

Dreadful distress of the army . . 341
Richard compelled to retreat . . 342
Scots and French break into England by
the western marches, and ravage Cum­
berland ......342

Return to Scotland         . . . .342

Discontent of the Scots, who refuse to

furnish transports for the French . 342
Miserable condition of the army of

Vienne......342

The French admiral at length obliges
himself to pay all damages, and his
knights are allowed to return . . 342
Reflections upon the expedition . . 343
Continuation of the war, and invasion of

England......343

Scottish descent upon Ireland . . 344
Character of Sir William Douglas . , 344
He assaults and plunders Carlingford,

and ravages the Isle of Man . . 344
Lands at Lochryan, and joins his father
and the Earl of Fife in the west of

England......344

Great invasion of England determined
on in a parliament held at Edin­
burgh
           ......345

Description of the army . . . 345
Plan of the campaign .... 345
Army separates into two divisions . 345
Second division, under the Earl of Doug­
las, pushes on to Durham . . . 346
Hotspur and the barons of Northumber­
land assemble their power, and oc­
cupy Newcastle.....346

The Scots present themselves before

the town......346

Skirmish between the knights, in which

Douglas wins the pennon of Hotspur 346
Defiance of Hotspur .... 346
The Scots are suffered to continue their

retreat.......346

Encamp in Redesdale, near Otterburn . 346
Douglas prevails on the Scottish barons
to interrupt their retreat, and assault
the castle of Otterburn . . .346
His judicious choice of the ground . 347
Hotspur pursues Douglas at the head of
eight thousand foot and six hundred

lances....... 347

Battle of Otterburn .                             347


xvi                                            CONTENTS.

PAGE

Death of Douglas.....    348

English totally defeated — captivity of

Hotspur......    348

Reflections upon the battle . . .    348

Causes of the defeat of the English .    348

Distinguished prisoners ....    349
No important consequences result from

this defeat......    349

State of Scotland—age and infirmities of

the king......    350

PAGE

The Earl of Fife chosen regent—his

character......    350

His injudicious administration . .    350

Three years’ truce.....    350

Death of Robert the Second . . .    350

His character ...                         .    350

Commerce of Scotland .                . ,    351

Notes and Illustrations . . .352

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